Visit Website Did you know? Four decades after Constantine made Christianity Rome's official religion, Emperor Julian—known as the Apostate—tried to revive the pagan cults and temples of the past, but the process was reversed after his death, and Julian was the last pagan emperor of Rome. The magistrates, though elected by the people, were drawn largely from the Senate, which was dominated by the patricians, or the descendants of the original senators from the time of Romulus. Politics in the early republic was marked by the long struggle between patricians and plebeians the common peoplewho eventually attained some political power through years of concessions from patricians, including their own political bodies, the tribunes, which could initiate or veto legislation.
The Battle of Actium, by Laureys a Castro Octavianthe grandnephew and adopted son of Julius Caesarhad made himself a central military figure during the chaotic period following Caesar's assassination. Octavian subsequently annexed Egypt to the empire.
The Senate granted him power over appointing its membership and over the gov lic, and as such he operated within the existing constitutional machinery. He thus rejected titles that Romans associated with monarchy, such as rex "king". The dictatorshipa military office in the early Republic typically lasting only for the six-month military campaigning season, had been resurrected first by Sulla in the late 80s BC and then by Julius Caesar in the mids; the title dictator was never again used.
As the adopted heir of Julius Caesar, Augustus had taken Caesar as a component of his name, and handed down the name to his heirs of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. With Vespasianone of the first emperors outside the dynasty, Caesar evolved from a family name to a formal title.
Augustus created his novel and historically unique position by consolidating the constitutional powers of several Republican offices. He renounced his consulship in 23 BC, but retained his consular imperiumleading to a second compromise between Augustus and the Senate known as the Second Settlement.
Augustus was granted the authority of a tribune tribunicia potestasthough not the title, which allowed him to call together the Senate and people at will and lay business before it, veto the actions of either the Assembly or the Senate, preside over elections, and it gave him the right to speak first at any meeting.
Also included in Augustus's tribunician authority were powers usually reserved for the Roman censor ; these included the right to supervise public morals and scrutinize laws to ensure they were in the public interest, as well as the ability to hold a census and determine the membership of the Senate.
No tribune of Rome ever had these powers, and there was no precedent within the Roman system for consolidating the powers of the tribune and the censor into a single position, nor was Augustus ever elected to the office of Censor. Whether censorial powers were granted to Augustus as part of his tribunician authority, or he simply assumed those, is a matter of debate.
In addition to those powers, Augustus was granted sole imperium within the city of Rome itself; all armed forces in the city, formerly under the control of the prefectswere now under the sole authority of Augustus.
Additionally, Augustus was granted imperium proconsulare maius power over all proconsulsthe right to interfere in any province and override the decisions of any governor.
With maius imperium, Augustus was the only individual able to grant a triumph to a successful general as he was ostensibly the leader of the entire Roman army. The Senate re-classified the provinces at the frontiers where the vast majority of the legions were stationed as imperial provincesand gave control of those to Augustus.
The peaceful provinces were re-classified as senatorial provincesgoverned as they had been during the Republic by members of the Senate sent out annually by the central government.
Taxes from the Imperial provinces went into the fiscusthe fund administrated by persons chosen by and answerable to Augustus. The revenue from senatorial provinces continued to be sent to the state treasury aerariumunder the supervision of the Senate.
The Augustus of Prima Porta The Roman legionswhich had reached an unprecedented 50 in number because of the civil wars, were reduced to Several legions, particularly those with members of doubtful loyalties, were simply demobilised.
Other legions were united, a fact hinted by the title Gemina Twin.
Control of the fiscus enabled Augustus to ensure the loyalty of the legions through their pay. Augustus completed the conquest of Hispaniawhile subordinate generals expanded Roman possessions in Africa and Asia Minor.
Augustus' final task was to ensure an orderly succession of his powers. His stepson Tiberius had conquered PannoniaDalmatiaRaetiaand temporarily Germania for the Empire, and was thus a prime candidate.
At first everything went as planned, but then disaster struck. The Illyrian tribes revolted and had to be crushed, and three full legions under the command of Publius Quinctilius Varus were ambushed and destroyed at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in AD 9 by Germanic tribes led by Arminius.
Being cautious, Augustus secured all territories west of Rhine and contented himself with retaliatory raids. The rivers Rhine and Danube became the permanent borders of the Roman empire in the North.
Sources[ edit ] Left image: The Augustan Age is not as well documented as the age of Caesar and Cicero. Livy wrote his history during Augustus's reign and covered all of Roman history through 9 BC, but only epitomes survive of his coverage of the late Republican and Augustan periods.
Important primary sources for the Augustan period include: Works of poetry such as Ovid 's Fasti and Propertius 's Fourth Book, legislation and engineering also provide important insights into Roman life of the time. Archaeology, including maritime archaeologyaerial surveysepigraphic inscriptions on buildings, and Augustan coinagehas also provided valuable evidence about economic, social and military conditions.
Josephus 's Jewish Antiquities is the important source for Judea ,which became a province during Augustus's reign. Julio-Claudian Dynasty[ edit ].The End of Roman Republic and Beginning of the Roman Empire.
The beginning of the Roman Empire, a year long period that followed the Roman Republic is traditionally dated to 27 BC when Octavian ( BC) was granted the title Augustus by the Roman Senate and became the first Roman . Mar 29, · In the space of a hundred years, Rome was transformed from a republic with democratic institutions into an empire under the control of one man - Augustus.
Roman political institutions reflected Roman society, which was divided into two classes: the patricians, wealthy elites, and the plebeians, the common people.
Initially, only the patricians were able to hold political office and make important decisions. Rome, the Roman Republic, and its transformation into an empire. Finally, in small groups, students role play members Identify the location and describe the rise of the Roman Republic, including the importance of such mythi- Rome’s transition from republic to empire.
National World History Standard 9: Understand how. Apr 12, · Find out what Justinian and the rest of the Byzantine emperors were up to over there, and how the Roman Empire dragged out its famous Decline well into medieval times. The Roman Empire (Latin: Imperium Rōmānum, Classical Latin: [benjaminpohle.comũː roːˈmaː.nũː]; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.
Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization.