In carrying out its mission, the Clearinghouse attempts to remain eclectic, and thus presents information from various schools of philosophy in order to inform its audience of the diversity of thought in the mental health field. The Abstracts of the Collected Works of C. Jung, therefore, becomes a suitable companion for the earlier volume Abstracts of the Standard Edition of Freud. It should be stated that no abstract can replace a careful reading of the original document.
For the values that characterize Western thought are not self-executing. They have never been universally accepted in the societies most closely identified with them, nor are their implications by any means so clear and unambiguous that the course to be followed in particular situations is self-evident.
On the contrary, these values are potentially contradictory, and the clash of interests to be found in the real world is so sharp that the nature of the governmental structures through which decisions are arrived at is critically important for the actual content of these decisions.
The great theme of the advocates of constitutionalism, in contrast either to theorists of utopianism, or of absolutism, of the right or of the left, has been the frank acknowledgment of the role of government in society, linked with the determination to bring that government under control and to place limits on the exercise of its power.
Of the theories of government which have attempted to provide a solution to this dilemma, the doctrine of the separation of powers has, in modern times, been the most significant, both intellectually and in terms of its influence upon institutional structures.
Such a claim, of course, requires qualification as well as justification. On the contrary it represents an area of political thought in which there has been an extraordinary confusion in the definition and use of terms.
Furthermore, much of the specific content of the writings of earlier centuries is quite inappropriate to the problems of the mid twentieth century. The doctrine of the separation of powers, standing alone as a theory of government, has, as will be demonstrated later, uniformly failed to provide an adequate basis for an effective, stable political system.
It has therefore been combined with other political ideas, the theory of mixed government, the idea of balance, the concept of checks and balances, to form the complex constitutional theories that provided the basis of modern Western political systems.
Nevertheless, when all the necessary qualifications have been made, the essential ideas behind Edition: To substantiate this view it will be necessary to attempt to define and use terms in a more precise way than has been generally the case in the past, and to review the evolution and history of the doctrine, important enough in itself, in order to understand its significance in the past and its relevance today.
In spite of the criticisms which can be made of the idea of the separation of powers, perhaps the most important conclusion to be drawn from such a review is that the problems of earlier centuries remain the problems of today; although the context is different, and the dimensions of the problem have changed, it is nevertheless the continuity of political thought, and of the needs of political man, which emerges as the most striking aspect of the history of institutional thought.
The doctrine of the separation of powers finds its roots in the ancient world, where the concepts of governmental functions, and the theories of mixed and balanced government, were evolved.
These were essential elements in the development of the doctrine of the separation of powers. Their transmission through medieval writings, to provide the basis of the ideas of constitutionalism in England, enabled the doctrine of the separation of powers to emerge as an alternative, but closely related, formulation of the proper articulation of the parts of government.
Growing out of the more ancient theory, the doctrine of the separation of powers became both a rival to it, and also a means of broadening and developing it into the eighteenth-century theory of the balanced constitution.
Thus began the complex interaction between the separation of powers and other constitutional theories which dominated the eighteenth century.
In England, France, and America this pattern of attraction and Edition: The revolutionary potentialities of the doctrine of the separation of powers in the hands of the opponents of aristocratic privilege and monarchical power were fully realized in America and France, and its viability as a theory of government was tested in those countries in a way which all too clearly revealed its weaknesses.
Nevertheless, the separation of powers, although rejected in its extreme form, remained in all three countries an essential element in constitutional thought, and a useful, if vague, guide for institutional development. That this once revolutionary idea could also become in the course of time a bulwark of conservatism, is understandable, for this is the fate of many political ideas.
As the nineteenth century developed the social environment became less and less favourable for the ideas which had been embodied in the pure doctrine of the separation of powers. The attack upon the doctrine came in two waves. First, the group which in earlier years had most fervently supported the separation of powers, the middle class, now saw within its reach the control of political power through the extension of the franchise, and the need for a theory that was essentially a challenge to the power of an aristocracy diminished.
However, the lessened enthusiasm for the doctrine took the form, in the period up until the Second Reform Act in England, of a re-examination and reformulation of the doctrine rather than an outright rejection of it.
Any suggestion of an extreme separation of powers had to be denied, but the importance of the idea as a part of the newly emerging theory of parliamentary government was readily acknowledged.
The idea of balance, which was now transferred from the earlier theory of the balanced constitution to become an integral part of the new theory, required still a separation of organs and functions, but with a different set of concepts that had to be fitted into the framework of constitutional theory.Here we are to assist you with outfit ideas and fashion advice to access in your everyday life and update your personal style with classy but modern dressing tips along with complimentary hair do.
項目 來源 資料夾 年度 參考類別 作者 標題 次標題 會議名稱 會議地點 出版地區 學術部門 大學 學位 諮詢人 檔案號碼. Editor's Preface The mission of the National Clearinghouse for Mental Health information is to provide effective dissemination of mental health information by all . The aim of persuasion is to change the attitudes and associated behaviour of another party in line with one’s own beliefs or purpose.
Rhetoric, the art of persuasion, is the practice and study ofthe linguistic resources which help speakers to achieve their objectives.
DISCIPLE MAKING PLAN _____ A Paper Presented to Dr. William J.
Higley Liberty Baptist Theological Seminary _____ In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course. The Story of My Life. Helen Keller. Part III.
A Supplementary Account of Helen Keller's Life and Education, Including Passages from the Reports and Letters of Her Teacher, Anne Mansfield Sullivan, by John Albert Macy CHAPTER V.