The following are the original twelve steps as published by Alcoholics Anonymous: Came to believe that a power greater than ourselves could restore us to sanity. Made a decision to turn our will and our lives over to the care of God as we understood Him. Made a searching and fearless moral inventory of ourselves.
The introduction opening paragraph basically accomplishes two goals: Open with a series of questions about the topic. Present startling or unusual facts or figures.
Define an important, subject related term. Quote a well known person or literary work.
Body Developmental paragraphs body paragraphs are the heart of an essay. They must clearly and logically support the thesis.
They must be arranged in the best possible way, e.
The paragraphs should flow smoothly from one to the next, e. In addition, minor supporting ideas are linked together within the paragraphs in a smooth manner.
Conclusion The conclusion is the summary paragraph. It should accomplish the following: Development General-to-specific sequence The topic sentence should be the first sentence in a paragraph.
The topic sentence is a general statement introducing the paragraph and is followed by specific details that expand, explain, or illustrate the topic sentence. Unity All the sentences should relate to one topic.
Completeness Supporting ideas should be developed enough to cover the topic. Coherence Coherence equals connection and consistency. Body paragraphs should flow smoothly from one to the next, e. Within a paragraph, there are three major ways to develop coherence through related sentences: Repetition of important words and pronouns - Repetition of key words helps the reader follow from sentence to sentence as important terms are defined and the relationship between them is explained.
Synonyms and substitutions - Synonyms are two or more words that have nearly the same thing. Substitution is a word that describes the subject. Transitional expressions - Transitional expressions are words and phrases that point out the exact relationship between one idea and another, one sentence and another, e.
Just as the sentences within a paragraph should flow smoothly, so the paragraphs within an essay should be clearly linked one to the next. The first sentence of each new paragraph is linked to the thesis statement or to the paragraph before.
The following are four ways to link paragraphs: Repetition of key words or ideas from the thesis statement 2. Reference to words or ideas from the preceding paragraph 3.
Use of transitional expressions 4. Use of transitional sentences A closer look at development Comparison and Contrast There are two ways to present similarities and differences between two things being compared or contrasted.
Point 1 Point 2 Then all B: Point 1 Point 2 Point 3 This pattern is good for short compositions.Johanna K.P. Greeson, PhD, MSS, MLSP, is an Assistant Professor at Penn.
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