How to Write a Summary of an Article? American Government And Rights The individual freedoms guaranteed by the First Amendment are widely regarded as essential to the maintenance of a democratic system. The First Amendment freedoms protect the legitimacy of philosophical, political, and ethical pluralism.
Pluralists, such as Hofstadter, believed that the constitutional insistence of checks and balances intended to create a slow political process in which no interest can completely win and oppress other interests over a long period of time.
While the scholars, Beard and Roche, make a strong defense of their opposing argument, it appears, based on the constitutional document and historical analysis that Hofstadter provided a more accurate portrayal of the founding fathers and their purpose in framing the various pieces of the Constitution.
The men who wrote the constitution came from a particular background of wealthy and politically elite people and as a result one of their main concerns in the newly developing nation was the protection of their property.
Under the Articles of Confederation, there was no guaranteed right of property and the economy was becoming a mess as there was no power to keep it controlled. Beard was the opposite of Roche.
In a country where the majority rules, the wealthy few became vulnerable to possibility of the poor population taking their belongings. Beard believes evidence of this can be seen throughout the Constitution, such as the Contract and Commerce clause which both limit state powers and allow Congress to regulate trading and property rights.
The second piece of evidence is that certain branches of the government, the Senate, President, and Supreme Court, are not directly elected by the people. Roche recognizes that the framers were an elite, but he is careful to point out that they were a political elite dedicated for the most part to creating an efficient and at the same time controlled national government that would be able to overcome the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
The framers were not an organized few dedicated to particular notions of political or economic beliefs beyond the need to create a national government that would be capable of uniting the disparate interests of the state.
When the Constitutionalists decided to challenge the Confederation, they used the methods of political legitimacy.
Roche believes the bicameral legislation of the constitution was effective at producing pluralism. Finally, the last theory of what the founding fathers intended for the purpose of the Constitution to be was to create a balanced government that followed the philosophy of checks and balance which derived from the Enlightenment ideals of Montesquieu.
The framing made sure to include legislation that aided the wealthy but also pieces that helped represent the larger population. This limits the Constitutions actions of governments by specifically listing Each branch of government exercises some control over others. The contract and commerce clauses protected property rights and strengthened the central government, but then the Bill of Rights and the House of Representatives gave power to the states and the poor majority.
The Senate, representing states, and the House of Representatives provide involvement for the majority in the Constitution, while the President and Supreme Court are chosen by the minority and provide protection for the smaller group of individuals. Both Beard and Roche have contrasting views on what the purpose was of the founding fathers in their framing of the Constitution, but both are ultimately flawed as it is wrong to say that their agenda was limited to selfish greed or altruism for the majority.
The real agenda, as Hofstadter explains, was to form a balanced government that ensures the basic rights for both the majority and minority, allowing the wealthy and the poor to be represented and protected under the branches of the government and legislation through a system of checks and balances.The American political tradition and the men who made it.
Contributor Internet Archive. Language English. Reprint of the ed. published by Knopf, New York The Founding Fathers: an age of realism -- Thomas Jefferson: the aristocrat as democrat -- Andrew Jackson and the rise of liberal capitalism benjaminpohle.com The Fathers, of course, were especially fearful that the poor would plunder the rich, but most of them would probably have admitted that the .
· OSR #3: Read Richard Hofstadter’s “The Founding Fathers: An Age of Realism” and write a 2-page summary according to the summary instructions on you outside reading assignment benjaminpohle.com · Web view. And as Hofstadter asserts it “is one of the world’s masterpieces of practical statecraft.” Hofstadter: “The Founding Fathers: The Age of Realism” The Quote: “Wherever the real power in a government lies, there is the danger of oppression.
In our Government the real power lies in the majority of the community. ”benjaminpohle.com?. · The American Political Tradition and The Men Who Made It is the story of the major social and political figures in American history that shaped the institutions and practices of the United States.
It was written by one of the most important American historians in the twentieth century, Richard benjaminpohle.com The American political tradition and the men who made it. [Richard Hofstadter] Home. WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. Search. Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Contacts Search for a Library.
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