Reaffirmed Committee on Obstetric Practice This document reflects emerging clinical and scientific advances as of the date issued and is subject to change. The information should not be construed as dictating an exclusive course of treatment or procedure to be followed.
When a child cannot be delivered through the vagina, it may be necessary to resort to cesarean section, a procedure in which the fetus is delivered through a surgical opening made in the uterus after the uterus has been exposed through an opening… Little is known of either the origin of the term or the history of the procedure.
Roman law Lex Caesarea mandated the cutting out from the womb a child whose mother had died during labour. A common misperception holds that Julius Caesar himself was born in this fashion.
The first documented cesarean section on a living woman was performed in The elective cesarean delivery she died 25 days after the surgery.
Abdominal delivery was subsequently tried in many ways and under many conditions, but it almost invariably resulted in the death of the mother from sepsis infection or hemorrhage bleeding. Even in the first half of the 19th century, the recorded mortality was about 75 percent, and fetal craniotomy—in which the life of the child is sacrificed to save that of the mother—was usually preferred.
Eventually, however, improvements in surgical techniques, antibioticsand blood transfusion and antiseptic procedures so reduced the mortality that cesarean section came to be frequently performed as an alternative to normal childbirth.
In modern obstetrical care, cesarean section usually is performed when the life of either the mother or the child would be endangered by attempting normal delivery.
The medical decision is based on physical examination, special tests, and patient history.
The examination includes consideration of any diseases the mother may have had in the past and disorders that may have arisen because of pregnancy. Special tests that might be performed include fetal scalp blood analysis and fetal heart rate monitoring.
Common indications for cesarean section include obstructed labour, failure of labour to progress, placenta praevia development of the placenta in an abnormally low position near the cervixfetal distress, gestational diabetes mellitusand improper positioning of the fetus for delivery.
In addition, cesarean section is often used if the birth canal is too small for normal delivery. Sometimes when a woman has had a child by cesarean section, any children born after the first cesarean section are also delivered by that method, but vaginal delivery is often possible. The risks of cesarean section are low but real.
The operation constitutes major surgery. Compared with the risks of normal vaginal delivery, it is more dangerous for the mother. The risk of complications—such as infection, hemorrhage, blood clots, and injury to the bladder or intestines —is greater.
If the baby is delivered by cesarean section planned in advance of labour, the infant can be premature, and it has been suggested that elective cesarean section may rob the infant of hormones and other substances released by the mother during labour. Researchers have also identified a correlation between infant birth by cesarean section and increased risk of childhood obesity.
In the World Health Organization WHO recommended an optimal cesarean section rate of 10 to 15 percent within a given population; if performed above this rate, the procedure was found by WHO to place an excessive burden on the resources necessary for the proper prenatal and postnatal care of mother and child, thereby increasing the number of women and infants exposed to the risks associated with the operation.
Despite the recommendations set forth by WHO, by the late 20th century the incidence of cesarean section in the United States had risen dramatically, largely as a result of an increase in the number of malpractice suits brought against obstetricians for failing to operate if there was an indication of trouble in delivery.
The rate had also increased in countries such as IndiaChina, and Brazil. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:One third of babies in the U.S. are born by C-section, which can be medically necessary or elective depending on certain conditions, your baby's health, and other factors.
Here's why having a cesarean section might be necessary. Aug 16, · Cesarean delivery is defined as the delivery of a fetus through surgical incisions made through the abdominal wall (laparotomy) and the uterine wall (hysterotomy).
Cesarean deliveries were initially performed to separate the mother and the fetus in . I am 27 weeks pregnant with my second child and have an elective cesarean scheduled for a week before my due date.
My daughter was born in The rate of cesarean delivery in the United States rose from % in to % in 12 A major reason for this increase is the decline in the rate of attempted vaginal birth after. INTRODUCTION. As with most surgical procedures, there is no standard technique for cesarean delivery.
The following discussion will review each step in the procedure and provide evidence-based recommendations for surgical technique, when these data . NEW ORLEANS — The number of previous cesarean deliveries a woman has undergone has an effect on the optimal time for subsequent cesarean delivery, according to a new study of almost women.